Destructive testing (DT) is a type of testing that involves the intentional destruction of a material, component or assembly to evaluate its mechanical, physical or chemical properties. DT is typically used to determine the strength, ductility, toughness and other properties of a material or component, and it may involve breaking, cutting, bending, or crushing the sample to obtain test data.
Some common types of destructive testing include:
- Tensile Testing: This method involves applying a controlled load to a material sample to measure its strength, ductility, and other mechanical properties. The sample is typically pulled in tension until it breaks, and the load and deformation are recorded.
- Hardness Testing: This method measures the resistance of a material to penetration or indentation. The hardness value is typically related to the strength and toughness of the material.
- Impact Testing: This method involves striking a material sample with a controlled force to measure its toughness or resistance to fracture. The sample may be subjected to a Charpy or Izod test, which involves striking the sample with a pendulum or hammer and measuring the energy required to fracture the sample.
- Fatigue Testing: This method involves subjecting a material sample to repeated cycles of loading and unloading to measure its resistance to fatigue failure.
- Fracture Testing: This method involves examining a material sample after it has been fractured to determine the cause and mode of failure.
Destructive testing is generally more expensive and time-consuming than non-destructive testing, and it requires the preparation and testing of a sample, which may not be representative of the entire component or structure. However, DT can provide more accurate and detailed data on a material’s properties, which can be used to improve the design and performance of materials and components.
Author: James Murphy, Operations Manger of IPEC Inspection Ltd.